Currently, the companies that make up the Classico Berardenga have, collectively, a wine-growing extension of approximately 1.100 hectares, falling, for the most part within the DOCG Chianti Classico.
In regards to the most cultivated varieties, it goes without saying that the undisputed star is Sangiovese which, according to the Chianti Classico product specifications, must be at least 80% of the wine’s blend. In addition to this primary grape variety, we also grow indigenous varieties such as Malvasia and Trebbiano Toscano, Colorino, Ciliegiolo and Canaiolo, and to a lesser extent international varieties, especially Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
The altitude, at which the vines are located, ranges from 250 to 500 meters above sea level, optimal altitude range for quality red wine production. The vine training systems in the Castelnuovo Berardenga area are essentially two, of a smaller size and undoubted qualities: guyot and cordon spur. On the average, planting density are approximately 4000- 5500 plants per hectare.
The soil, a key component in the composition of a wine-growing terroir, manifests itself in the Castelnuovo Berardenga area through two main types: sedimentary soils and alluvial soils. The first, from a chemical point of view, is substantially composed of calcareous marl clay coming from the weathering of rocks such as Alberese and Galestro. Alberese comes in the form of compact stones of variable size and very resistant to atmospheric agents. Galestro, instead, is a much more brittle stone, and its breakdown, under the action of rain and sunshine, allows it to release into the soil precious minerals for the vines. In sedimentary rocks we also find the widespread sandstone, Macigno, from the Chianti Mountains, a fore deep’s sandstone with variable grain, but still resembling, at least physically, the sands of the Pliocene. These sedimentary soils are suitable for obtaining structured wines capable of long ageing. The alluvial soils, unlike the first ones, date back to a more recent geological era, and consist mainly of Pliocene sands and silt. The physical structure of these soils is typically dispersed with an abundance of pebbles. In these soils winemakers aim to acquire younger wines with strong exaltation of fruity notes and freshness. From a chemical point of view “our” soils have small quantities of organic substances and available phosphorus.
The climate is continental, with even very low temperatures in winter and sometimes very dry summers. The temperature variations throughout the day are also important, due to the higher altitude. The annual rainfall is around 700/800 mm, concentrated mainly in late autumn and in spring.
Here, the grapevine has always represented the main crop for the excellent quality of its production.